In a class room setting, why do people look at you when you are asking a question?

In a class room setting, why do people look at you when you are asking a question?

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Picture this scenario:

  1. You are a student enrolled in a large class

  2. You arrived slightly late to the class, so you are sitting at the back of the class

  3. You raise your hands to ask the teacher a question.

  4. As you speak, you observe that the entire class turn their body sideways to look at you, even the students who are sitting in the front row. You feel self-conscious

Three thoughts are now going through your mind:

  1. What are "ears" for, again?

  2. It must be really uncomfortable and awkward to twist your body like that.

  3. What is the incurred "loss" if the other students did not look at you and simply listened?

Can some expert chime in the reasoning as to why students have to look at you when they are listening?

Could this be some sort of form of peer pressure?

Could the act of looking help to localize the sound (or synthesize the information) in some way?

Do we look so we can prejudge? For example, if we see that the asker/speaker is another professor, we pay more attention to the question as it might be more sophisticated than asked by a student.

Well, your ears are shaped in a way that is optimized for sound sources in front of you, so it could be that. But my non-expert bet is that probably they're using gaze to signal that they're paying attention. The signal is not just to you "I'm following what you're saying" but to everyone else as well, "hey, check out what's going on over there" creating joint attention that coordinates the group in thinking about your question. This might be uncomfortable for you (although it's probably a compliment that you're worth paying attention to), but the general mechanism of having super-obvious cues to attention and a predisposition to follow them to create joint attention is a very effective way of coordinating social behavior. This is so fundamentally human that most people take it for granted, but that doesn't stop academics from studying it. You could maybe try something like

Pfeiffer, U. J., Vogeley, K., & Schilbach, L. (2013). From gaze cueing to dual eye-tracking: novel approaches to investigate the neural correlates of gaze in social interaction. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(10), 2516-2528.


Brooks, A. M. M. R. (2017). Eyes wide shut: The importance of eyes in infant gaze-following and understanding other minds. In Gaze-Following (pp. 229-254). Psychology Press.

… if you really want a deep-dive into this.

Gaze goes a bit beyond merely focusing on the source of sounds. I think it's fair to say that not everyone is going to do this all the time. Context and the person(s) involved matter:

Decades of research into the use of gaze in natural interactions [… ] shows how gaze can signal attentiveness, competence and social dominance. This means that gaze can be a positive, neutral or negative cue, depending on the context. Direct gaze can be used to regulate conversation shifts [… ] and to signal social interest [… ]. Prolonged gaze or staring leads to avoidance behaviours [… ]

So really interesting or dumb questions are more likely to get a head turn. And the participants doing the head turns are more likely to be those really interested or at least not socially shy. Also, long exchanges with the podium speaker are more likely to get that either because the exchange could be really interesting or perceived as really boorish. In that latter case a long gaze is a form of peer pressure to shut up and let the podium speaker continue; or maybe just let the rest of the students leave the amphitheater if this is an end-of-class question.

Since you're from Japan, I tried to find if there's a cultural difference with Europe or US on this issue specifically (gazing at someone asking questions in class or other large audience)… but I couldn't find anything particular insofar. In general, it is known that gaze behavior is culture-related to some extent, e.g. Japanese tend to gaze less at someone (compared to Canadians) when answering a question.

Another interesting issue would be how many students initiate this type of gaze and how many are simply respond (follow) the gaze of others… The two are distinct processes:

Whereas first elements of RJA [Responding Joint Attention] are already evident at 6 months of age, IJA [Initiating Joint Attention] does not emerge before the second year of life (Mundy and Newell, 2007; Mundy et al., 2007). Chimpanzees followed the experimenters gaze on a frequent basis but did not try to initiate JA (Tomasello and Carpenter, 2005). Interestingly, differential development of both RJA and IJA can be observed in brain systems from childhood to adulthood (Oberwelland et al., 2016), as well as during atypical development in disorders such as autism (Oberwelland et al., 2017). In autism, IJA is typically more impaired than RJA and emerges much later than in typical development (Mundy, 2003). These empirical findings clearly point toward separate underlying cognitive systems of RJA and IJA (Mundy and Newell, 2007).

Dealing with Prejudice

If you yourself experience prejudice or discrimination related to your race or ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion, or any other aspect of diversity, don’t ignore it or accept it as something that cannot be changed. As discussed earlier, college students can do much to minimize intolerance on campus. Many overt forms of discrimination are illegal and against college policies. You owe it to yourself, first and foremost, to report it to the appropriate college authority.

You can also attack prejudice in other ways. Join a campus organization that works to reduce prejudice or start a new group and discuss ways you can confront the problem and work for a solution. Seek solidarity with other groups. Organize positive celebrations and events to promote understanding. Write an article for a campus publication explaining the values of diversity and condemning intolerance.

What if you are directly confronted by an individual or group making racist or other discriminatory remarks? In an emotionally charged situation, rational dialogue may be difficult or impossible, and a shouting match or name-calling seldom is productive. If the person may have made an offensive remark inadvertently or because of a misunderstanding, then you may be able to calmly explain the problem with what they said or did. Hopefully the person will apologize and learn from the experience. But if the person made the remark or acted that way intentionally, confronting this negative person directly may be difficult and not have a positive outcome. Most important, take care that the situation does not escalate in the direction of violence. Reporting the incident instead to college authorities may better serve the larger purpose of working toward harmony and tolerance.

ACTIVITY: Developing Your Cultural Competency



This activity will help you examine ways in which you can develop your awareness of and commitment to diversity on campus. Answer the following questions to the best of your ability:

Response: The Best Ways To Engage Students In Learning

By Larry Ferlazzo — December 06, 2014 20 min read

(This is the first post in a four-part series)

How would you define student engagement, and what are good strategies to promote it?

When students feel more motivated to learn -- in other words, when engagement is at a high level -- they perform better academically , improve classroom behavior , and gain a higher sense of self-esteem. Unfortunately, data -- and the direct experience of many of us teachers -- shows that lack of motivation affects many of our students, and appears to increase each year from middle school through high school . Students can demonstrate this lack of engagement by withholding effort and by “voting with their feet” through rising chronic absenteeism as they get older, and chronic absenteeism is among the highest predictors of dropping-out of school. To use terms first used by Albert O. Hirschman , it appears that the lack of student motivation is a major contributing cause to many choosing this option of “exit” (withdrawal from active engagement) over “voice” ( active participation ) in academic life.

How do we respond to this challenge?

Many guests and readers will be offering suggestions in this four-part series on student engagement. In addition, several previous posts in this column have addressed a similar theme, and you can find them in this compilation on Student Motivation . Lastly, readers might also be interested in another collection of resources titled The Best Posts & Articles On Student Engagement .

Responses in today’s column come from Julia Thompson, Myron Dueck, Bryan Harris, and Debbie Silver. In addition, you can listen to a ten-minute conversation I had with Bryan and Debbie about this topic on my BAM! Radio Show.

Speaking of my BAM! show, I have also just done a special one following-up my series here last month on teacher evaluation . You can listen to a short conversation I had with Ben Spielberg and Ted Appel (the principal of the school where I teach) about an innovative process of evaluating teachers on “teacher inputs” instead of “student outputs.”

Now, it’s time to hear from today’s guests:

Response From Julia Thompson

Julia Thompson is a teacher, consultant, and best-selling author of several books for teachers including The First-Year Teacher’s Survival Guide . Thompson maintains a Web site for educators and a blog , and can found on Twitter at @TeacherAdvice :

When students are engaged in learning, there is movement and laughter and sometimes lots of noise. They are up and out of their seats involved in activities that promote thought, creativity, and discovery. Students are busy, self-disciplined, and best of all, willing to take responsibility for their own learning because they understand that what they are doing is important.

We need to provide our students with activities that are innovative and challenging as well as purposeful if we want them to be engaged in learning. Although there are many different factors to consider when designing instruction meant to engage students of various ages, there are some easy-to-implement universal strategies that can be used to increase the engagement potential in instructional activities.

    When students can set their own goals for assignments and then work to achieve those goals, then their work takes on a serious and meaningful purpose.

    Help students stay on the right track by providing opportunities for frequent self-checks and plenty of other formative assessments to that they can monitor their own progress. Make it easy for students to be aware of how well they are doing, and you will make it easy for them to stay engaged in a learning activity.

    Create activities and assignments that are challenging but attainable. Students should have to work and think to succeed, but the potential for success should always be clearly evident.

    It seems obvious, but to engage students be sure to provide the materials, supplies, and other resources needed for successful completion of the work. For example, try to avoid the trap of assuming that students have access to the Internet or a public library when they are not in class.

    Be positive with your students. Instead of just telling them what is wrong with their work, focus on what they are doing correctly. If you don’t believe that they will succeed, then the engagement potential in an assignment will vanish.

    Offer as many choices and optional assignments as is reasonably possible. Students who have the ability to make sensible choices about their work will find it intrinsically engaging because their choices provide a sense of ownership.

    Design lessons that call for students to interact with students in other classrooms across the globe, to creatively use technology and other media, and to solve authentic problems. The possibilities for engagement are endless when students can see that what they do in your class can be applied to real-life situations.

    Don’t underestimate your students’ delight in having fun as they work. Appeal to their playful natures when you provide assignments that call for them to solve puzzles or problems, play games, watch humorous videos, or write answers on anything other than paper.

Myron Dueck is the author of Grading Smarter Not Harder: Assessment Strategies That Motivate Kids and Help Them Learn (ASCD, 2014). He is currently a vice-principal and teacher in School District 67 in British Columbia, Canada and previously taught in Manitoba and on the South Island of New Zealand. Dueck has presented his student-friendly assessment procedures at conferences worldwide:

When someone truly desires to challenge, question, participate, overcome or even listen, it is quite likely that learning will occur.

In the sections below I cover a few of the most important portals to conjuring human interest. Engagement can occur when any one of these portals exists in great abundance, or when smaller amounts of a number of them combine to tip the balance from apathy to interest:

Perceived Expertise - When I invited a former WWII submarine captain to my class he did not need to do anything but speak and my students were engaged. His status as a real-life Naval warrior was enough for students to be enthralled in his presentation. He explained how ships were identified, tracked and inevitablly sunk. Even if he knew how to operate presentation software or a projector, he wouldn’t have needed it. He was the ‘real-deal’, and my students knew it.

Relevancy/Need - Students will be engaged in activities that are perceived as necessary - and this feeling is not obtained by the teacher simply saying, ‘you need this’. Kevin McGifford, teaches a career prep class in British Columbia and he has built perceived need into his classroom activities. In one example, during the safety unit his students actually visit the local fire department and use real fire extinguishers to put out real fires. Something considered necessary is also relevant to the student - the learning matters in a real life context. The educator’s challenge in this arena is to keep a look-out for the ‘needs’ inherent in a modern community, and to thereby delve into place-consciousness. Once the content is tied to something that is relevant to the student - the engagement then takes care of itself.

Fun/Stimulation - Games, simulations or quests have a built-in engagement factor. Scott Harkenss teach senior sciences at Penticton Secondary and he introduced me to scavenger hunts. What might surprise the reader is the age of the students. Many of the most passionate scavengers are seniors! Harkness has embraced QR-code generators and his students are first required to complete traditional clue worksheets that provide hints as to where the team might find an assortment of QR codes hidden around the school. Once found, and scanned, these codes take the students to whatever web-sites that Harkness requires them to locate. It may sound complicated, but it is really quite simple, and in the end - simply engaging!

Choice/Autonomy - Blending student talents and interests with the content of a course is one of the avenues to engagement. I feature Major Project Planning Sheets in my book and these templates allow students to select any of the unit outcomes that will be the focus of their major project. After identifying the outcomes, the student indicates the media that will be used to address each one. The last column provides the student a place to indicate the details that will be featured through the medium. Students have interests that range from rap to pottery to painting. Providing an avenue for these students to embrace the content through a passion is a wonderful way to promote true engagement.

So how do we engage students? That question will likely vex educators until the end of time. With that said, I contend that engagement will continue to be the condition that occurs when learning becomes the unavoidable by-product of a desired activity or process.

Response From Bryan Harris

Dr. Bryan Harris serves as the Director of Professional Development for the Casa Grande Elementary School District in Arizona. He is the author of 3 highly-regarded books published by Routledge and is a popular speaker and workshop leader who specializes in helping teachers utilize effective student engagement and classroom management strategies. He can be reached at :

In my first book, Battling Boredom , I defined student engagement as, “a state of emotional and cognitive commitment or willingness (on the part of the students) to participate in a task or learning goal.” Two key terms are worth pointing out here - willingness and commitment. As teachers, we spend a lot of time creating lessons, designing assessments, and delivering content and it can be extremely frustrating when students don’t put forth the effort or motivation to be involved in the learning. The good news is that, as teachers, when we use effective engagement strategies we see all kinds of wonderful things happen in our classrooms. Among other things, student engagement positively impacts: motivation, short-term and long-term memory, social skills, and behavior.

Selecting the right engagement strategies for your students depends on several factors including age, maturity, the objective(s) of the lesson, and the overall classroom culture. However, despite the specific elements of each classroom, there are a couple of universal strategies that are very likely to get your students deeply engaged in the learning: The use of Powerful Images and the promotion of Academic Conversations.

Powerful Images

What: A Powerful Image is a picture that evokes an emotional response. Powerful Images differ from typical pictures because they evoke an immediate, sometimes strong reaction. Sometimes the response is “wow”, sometimes its “I can’t believe that” and sometimes students quietly reflect on the content of the image. Powerful Images help to focus student conversations by providing them with something external on which to focus their conversations and thinking. This is preferable, particularly for many struggling students, because it takes the stress away from the interpersonal interactions of a conversation and places the focus on something external. During conversations, reflections, and thinking, students are asked to reference what they see in the image. John Medina, in his book “Brain Rules,” outlines how powerful the brain’s visual processing system is. He explains the power of something researchers have known for years - the pictorial superiority effect (PSE). This research explains the old adage that a picture is worth 1000 words. If images and pictures are indeed that powerful, we should be using them in the classroom to reinforce concepts and engage students.

How: When planning a lesson, do a web image search using key terms from the objective. For example, if you are teaching about ideas related to the impact of Nazi occupation of Eastern Europe during WWII, do a web search for some key terms. You’ll be amazed at some of the images you’ll find. Be cautious, of course, because not all images (although they may be historically accurate) are appropriate for students. Then, using the images you find plan specific questions to ask of students related to the images and the objective.

Academic Conversations

What: Jeff Zwiers and Marie Crawford, in their outstanding book, “Academic Conversations - Classroom Talk that Fosters Critical Thinking and Content Understandings,” define academic conversations as, ". sustained and purposeful conversations about school topics.” For our purposes here, we will define academic conversation as student talk that builds and deepens content knowledge, enhances skill development, and engages students in the life of the classroom. One hallmark of a deeply engaged individual is that they talk about what they are learning. Humans are social beings and some of our greatest insights and learning come from interacting with and exchanging ideas with those around us. However, let’s be honest for a minute. Traditionally, far too many schools and teachers have treated student talk as unnecessary. In some cases, we’ve even viewed student talk as the enemy of a productive and efficient classroom. But the truth is that few strategies engage students as deeply and positively impact memory and retention as a good ‘ol conversation.

In my book Creating a Classroom Culture that Supports the Common Core , I describe three building blocks for effective student conversations: Curiosity, Purpose, and Structure.

The goal of the first step, curiosity, is to ignite thinking on the part of the students. If we want students to talk about their learning, we need to give them something interesting to talk about. Far too often, we ask students to talk, summarize, or verbalize about something that they have very little interest in. If we want them to have effective conversations where they are deeply engaged, we need to give them something interesting to talk about.

While curiosity can spark interest in a topic, students also need to know the purpose for having a conversation. Curiosity alone doesn’t guarantee that students will have a meaningful conversation nor does it guarantee that students will focus their conversations on the objective(s) of the lesson. In other words, curiosity without purpose is incomplete. When establishing the purpose for a conversation, the simplest and most straightforward statements are best. For example, an effective purpose statement for a conversation might be, “Students, in just a moment you will be having a conversation with your table partners in order to share ideas that could be used during your writing assignment. I want you to each listen to each other and exchange ideas so that you have more ideas for your own writing.”

Structure, then, serves as the final building block for an effective conversation. Structure refers to the format, methods, and strategies students will use to participate in the conversation. In essence, the structure constitutes the rules of the game for the conversation. Without a specific structure, conversations often fall apart and fail to reach their potential. For example, in the statement above regarding purpose, you can imagine that not all students would equally engage in the conversation without some specific method or strategy that increases the likelihood of their participation. There are probably hundreds of strategies that could be used to promote conversation but below I’ve briefly described just a few of my favorites.

Sentence Starters - A sentence starter is an open-ended phrase, statement, or question that students use to guide the beginning (and in some cases the middle part) of a conversation. They are, literally, the words that students use to start the conversation. They work as a sort of jump start for student thinking and exchange of ideas. Examples include:

“One thing that I heard that was interesting was. ”
“An example I remember is. ”
“I thought ______ was the best example because. ”

Think-Write-Pair-Share - All too often we ask students to have a conversation immediately after being exposed to a new idea. However, all students benefit from being given time to consider their ideas and thoughts and to make connections to other ideas they’ve learned. Think-Write-Pair-Share is effective because it provides students with the necessary time to think and write before they are expected to talk about their ideas. Because students take the time to write down thoughts it enhances the conversations. Their written ideas can also serve as a focal point.

Focal Points - A problem with many classroom conversations is that students are asked to talk about topics or ideas primarily from memory. That is, they are asked to summarize, share, or expand based solely on what they recall about a topic. Relying solely on memory (literally what is floating around in their head at any given moment) has obvious limitations. Instead, consider providing something for students to focus their attention on during a conversation. Focal points are literally the place where students look during a conversation. They can be written summaries (like a written part of a Think-Write-Pair-Share), an image on a screen (like a Powerful Image), a passage in a book, or a list of questions on the board.

Drumming to the Beat of Different Marchers: Finding the Rhythm for Differentiated Instruction and Fall Down 7 Times, Get Up 8: Teaching Kids to Succeed . She co-wrote the new book, Deliberate Optimism: Reclaiming the Joy in Teaching . You can read more about her at and follow here on Twitter at @DrDebbieSilver :

It is time we stop talking about how to motivate kids and be more specific about what it is we are actually trying to do with learners. We need to acknowledge that motivation is an intrinsic force that comes from within the learner. The role of educators is to inspire, to challenge, and to engage students in meaningful learning that will activate within them an internal desire to master certain concepts and skills. Ideally we ignite in them a passion for learning that extends far beyond a single test, our classrooms, or even a particular time period. Our goal is to foster self-motivation within each student. In order to achieve this end we must ensure that they are given relevant material, a justification for learning, a degree of autonomy in their choices, and a reasonable chance at success.

For teachers who want to master the art of student engagement, these proposals are key: 1) offer relevant material grounded in student interests 2) provide learners with a rationale and choices and, 3) challenge every student to work just beyond his/her reach.

1. Offer relevant material grounded in student interests.

Effective teaching takes two things: a) an understanding of who our students are (their prior experiences, their strengths, their challenges, their aspirations, and their levels of competency) and, b) being well-versed in the subject matter we teach. Knowing students allows teachers to more aptly match instructional strategies and topics to those that are most appealing to learners. Deep subject matter competency gives us the capacity to relate essential concepts to the particular interests of our learners. Offering students instructional strategies and tasks that are important to them is a powerful way to enhance student engagement.

2. Provide the learner with a rationale and choices.

Telling learners they need to acquire certain knowledge and/or skills “because I said so,” or “because it’s going to be on the test” does little to inspire deep interest or commitment on the part of students. Learners of all ages are eager for autonomy and need to feel they have a voice in their learning. Teachers can encourage kids to work through even tedious steps if they provide good reasons to keep trying and/or offer students at least some choice in the process.

Often times simply acknowledging that what we are asking students to do is not going to be fun or easy or immediately gratifying will help maintain momentum:

“Yes, I know this part is hard (or boring or whatever). I never liked doing conjugations either. However, let me show you how this eventually makes everything else a lot easier.”

Giving students options is another way to ensure perseverance and effort:

“Okay, I understand you don’t like memorizing the multiplication tables. I think I’ve demonstrated how acquiring that proficiency will serve you well, so let’s look at a way that’s more appealing to you. Do you want to practice with this computer program, work with a partner using flashcards, or put on headphones and do the multiplication dance? Let’s see if we can work out a plan that works best for you.”

3. Challenge every student to work just beyond her/his reach.

The optimal zone for student engagement is one in which they are working towards something they cannot easily do but is within their reach if they put forth effort. Perhaps the hardest part of keeping students inspired is figuring out where they already are and setting tasks just beyond that. Since students are working at different rates of competency, it is challenging to set individual or small group goals that maximize learning opportunities for everyone. However, research on self-motivation is clear about the importance of monitoring progress so that students feel they are making gains and that their accomplishments come from hard-earned success:

“You know what? I think you’re getting confused by trying to do too many steps at once. Let’s move you back to the one-step problems until you feel a little more confident. Why don’t you work on some one-step problems for a while, and let me know when you’re ready to move back to these.”

“You are already finished? Let me take a look at that. It looks like I gave you something you already knew how to do. I’m so sorry I wasted your time. Here, try this next activity. I think you’ll find it a little more challenging and a lot more fun. I’ll be back to check on your progress.”

Each of the 3 proposals requires teachers to concentrate attention on what works best for our students. I believe that many kids are starved for appropriate adult responsiveness, and one of the most productive ways educators can engage learners is to give them our undivided time and focus in the classroom. Student engagement requires a masterful blend of preparation, planning, and instructional flexibility. When we witness students becoming self-motivated in the classroom and later evidencing a lifelong love for knowledge, we know that we have successfully engaged them as learners.

Please feel free to leave a comment your reactions to the topic or directly to anything that has been said in this post. I’ll be including readers’ comments in Part Four

Consider contributing a question to be answered in a future post. You can send one to me at [email protected] .When you send it in, let me know if I can use your real name if it’s selected or if you’d prefer remaining anonymous and have a pseudonym in mind.

You can also contact me on Twitter at @Larryferlazzo .

Anyone whose question is selected for weekly column can choose one free book from a number of education publishers.

Just a reminder -- you can subscribe and receive updates from this blog via email or RSS Reader. .. And,if you missed any of the highlights from the first three years of blog, you can see a categorized list below. You won’t see posts from school year in those compilations, but you can review those new ones by clicking on the monthly archives link on this blog’s sidebar:

Important Decision-Making Skills That Employers Value

Different employers look for different things, of course, but decision-making skills are sought by virtually all companies. That's because all employees are faced with decisions in the workplace, big and small, every day.

In general, applicants who can demonstrate an ability to identify all the options and compare them in terms of both cost and effectiveness have an advantage over those who can’t.

What's your in-game mouse sensitivity setting, and why?

Title. I know basically nothing about individual mouse specs, so just feel free to say in here your mouse's DPI, etc.

Edit: "and why?" Iɽ appreciate if your comment didn't consist of nothing more than some dumb numerical values that you need to Ctrl-C and Ctrl-V. And certainly don't expect me to echo such an overused B99 reference if you can't even answer the question properly.

To offer a different comment to the rest.

Why do people care so much about other peoples' mouse sensitivities? Twitch streamers, gaming youtubers, and top-level competitive players get asked this all of the time.

Yes, I understand there's a general curiosity and how your setup compares with others. Yes, people also request custom HUDs and configs, but I feel the 360 and DPI numbers are too abstract to mean anything alone (and often, they are alone).

I feel the more important question is "why is your sensitivity the way it is?", and then the numbers will mean something.

I have a lower sensitivity so I can aim more smoothly, precisely.

I have a lower sensitivity since I tend to only play scout or sniper.

I have a lower sensitivity because I have a large enough mousepad the benefits of a higher one is met by simply utilizing more space.

I have a higher sensitivity so I can airstrafe more freely.

I have a higher sensitivity so I can do a 180 and check my back for spies without issue.

I have a higher sensitivity so I can look around my surroundings easily. Which means I do it often.

I have a higher sensitivity since I absolutely love a soldier, and I flick down to rocket jump without delay.

I have this sensitivity because I'm simply used to it. Muscle memory takes a long time to build.

I use multiple sensitivities depending on the current class (for reasons mentioned above).

I use a single sensitivity for all classes in order to not screw up my muscle memory.

I try to stick to a sensitivity that balances all of my needs (from the reasons mentioned above).

I adjusted my sensitivity based on what I felt was "most natural" to me. If I usually overaimed the target, it was too high. If I usually underaimed, it was too low. I haven't changed it since.

I constantly adjust my sensitivity every time I play until I don't overaim or underaim. In a way, I'm just calibrating the controls.

I don't need to calibrate my sensitivity if I warm-up my aim before I play. For a few minutes daily, I can manually adjust how much my hand moves until I can keep the crosshairs on the target. I also do practice these exercises during my downtime, such as between matches, during setup, or when running to the frontlines.

I main Medic, and I have no fucking idea what my sensitivity is. Well, just shut up and stop calling for me, if that's what you meant.

TLDR = "Do people request mouse sensitivities simply because it's easier than asking for what made you choose a specific sensitivity?"

Positive Effects of Building Relationships

When building relationships is at the center of an early childhood classroom, the quality of student-teacher interactions and academics improves. Teachers and parents notice children using kind words with each other. They see children working together as a team towards common goals. There is a decrease in aggressive behaviors and negative attitudes. There is an overall improvement in the classroom climate. Academics and school readiness also increase.

“Oh, you can go first.” – 4 year old Sarah said to her friend.


Does Proctorio monitor eye movements?

No. Proctorio does not track eye movements, but we may use facial detection to ensure test takers are not looking away from their exam for an extended period of time. This simply detects the presence of a face interacting with the exam window.

How do you decide what behavior counts as “cheating”?

Only the exam administrator or the institution can dictate what type of behavior they want to monitor over the course of an exam. Exam administrators will then review exam attempts to determine whether any flagged behavior was truly infringing on the integrity of the exam.

What if a test taker looks at the clock to check the time? Or moves around a lot? Will they be flagged?

Subtle movements, such as the ones mentioned, are not likely to be flagged. Even if such actions are flagged, the exam administrator is able to review the exam attempt and determine whether the given behavior was actually a breach of exam integrity or not.

When does Proctorio flag you?

Proctorio will flag behavior based on the settings chosen by your exam administrator. Settings can differ from exam to exam.

What Is Diversity?

There are few words in the English language that have more diverse interpretations than diversity. What does diversity mean? Better yet&mdashwhat does diversity mean to you? And what does it mean to your best friend, your teacher, your parents, your religious leader, or the person standing behind you in a grocery store?

As we&rsquoll use the term here, diversity refers to the great variety of human characteristics&mdashways that we are different even as we are all human and share more similarities than differences. These differences are an essential part of what enriches humanity. Aspects of diversity may be cultural, biological, or personal in nature. Diversity generally involves things that may significantly affect some people&rsquos perceptions of others&mdashnot just any way people happen to be different. For example, having different tastes in music, movies, or books is not what we usually refer to as diversity.

When discussing diversity, it is often difficult to avoid seeming to generalize about different types of people&mdashand such generalizations can seem similar to dangerous stereotypes. The following descriptions are meant only to suggest that individuals are different from other individuals in many possible ways and that we can all learn things from people whose ideas, beliefs, attitudes, values, backgrounds, experiences, and behaviors are different from our own. This is a primary reason college admissions departments frequently seek diversity in the student body. Following are various aspects of diversity:

  • Race: Race refers to what we generally think of as biological differences and is often defined by what some think of as skin color. Such perceptions are often at least as much social as they are biological.
  • Ethnicity: Ethnicity is a cultural distinction that is different from race. Ethnic groups share a common identity and a perceived cultural heritage that often involves shared ways of speaking and behaving, religion, traditions, and other traits. The term &ldquoethnic&rdquo also refers to such a group that is a minority within the larger society. Race and ethnicity are sometimes interrelated but not automatically so.
  • Cultural background: Culture, like ethnicity, refers to shared characteristics, language, beliefs, behaviors, and identity. We are all influenced by our culture to some extent. While ethnic groups are typically smaller groups within a larger society, the larger society itself is often called the &ldquodominant culture.&rdquo The term is often used rather loosely to refer to any group with identifiable shared characteristics.
  • Educational background: Colleges do not use a cookie-cutter approach to admit only students with identical academic skills. A diversity of educational background helps ensure a free flow of ideas and challenges those who might become set in their ways.
  • Geography: People from different places within the United States or the world often have a range of differences in ideas, attitudes, and behaviors.
  • Socioeconomic background: People&rsquos identities are influenced by how they grow up, and part of that background involves socioeconomic factors. Socioeconomic diversity can contribute to a wide variety of ideas and attitudes.
  • Gender roles: Women hold virtually all professional and social roles, including those once dominated by men, and men have taken on many roles, such as raising a child, that were formerly occupied mostly by women. These changing roles have brought diverse new ideas and attitudes to college campuses.
  • Gender identity: Gender identity is one&rsquos personal experience of one&rsquos own gender. Gender identity can correlate with the sex at birth &ndash male or female, or can differ from it completely: males may identify as female or vice versa, or a person may identify as a third gender or as falling somewhere along the continuum between male and female.
  • Age: While younger students attending college immediately after high school are generally within the same age range, older students returning to school bring a diversity of age. Because they often have broader life experiences, many older students bring different ideas and attitudes to the campus.
  • Sexual orientation: Gays and lesbians make up a significant percentage of people in American society and students on college campuses. Exposure to this diversity helps others overcome stereotypes and become more accepting of human differences.
  • Religion: For many people, religion is not just a Sunday morning practice but a larger spiritual force that infuses their lives. Religion helps shape different ways of thinking and behaving.
  • Political views: A diversity of political views helps broaden the level of discourse on campuses concerning current events and the roles of government and leadership at all levels.
  • Physical ability: Some students have athletic talents. Some students have physical disabilities. Physical differences among students bring yet another kind of diversity to colleges&mdasha diversity that both widens opportunities for a college education and also helps all students better understand how people relate to the world in physical as well as intellectual ways.

These are just some of the types of diversity you are likely to encounter on college campuses and in our society generally. In the following video, students from Juniata College describe what diversity means to them and explain why it&rsquos an important aspect of their college experience.

Empowering Conversations: Diversity and Inclusion at Juniata College

Recommended Books on the Topic

To learn more about goal setting for children and students, check out these six popular books on the subject:

  • My Happy Place: A Children’s Self-Reflection and Personal Growth Journal with Creative Exercises, Fun Activities, Inspirational Quotes, Gratitude, Dreaming, Goal Setting, Coloring In, and Much More – Sheleen Lepar and Helene Pam (Amazon)
  • Future Lady Boss: Goal Setting Journal by Suzie Luv (Amazon)
  • Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning – Leslie Grant and James Stronge (Amazon)
  • Every Kid’s Guide to Goals: How to Choose, Set, and Achieve Goals That Matter to You – Karleen Tauszik (Amazon)
  • Levi’s Great & Wonderful Life: A Child’s Story About Overcoming Fears, Setting Goals, & Achieving Success Through Visualization – Brandon Vannoy (Amazon)
  • My Simple Book of Goals: Goal-Setting Journal for Youth – Alicia Hadley (Amazon)

Then we have an additional article where we take an in-depth look at the best goal-setting books.

Understanding Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Orders

DNR means "Do Not Resuscitate." DNR orders are written instructions from a physician telling health care providers not to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). CPR uses mouth-to-mouth or machine breathing and chest compressions to restore the work of the heart and lungs when someone's heart or breathing has stopped. It is an emergency rescue technique that was developed to save the life of people who are generally in good health.

NOTE: If you do not have a DNR orders, health care providers will begin CPR in an emergency.

Frequently Asked Questions about Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Orders

CPR is a vigorous emergency procedure and it is not always successful. Experience has shown that CPR does not restore breathing and heart function in patients who have widespread cancer, widespread infection or other terminal illness.

A patient may not want CPR attempted when:

  • There is no medical benefit expected. CPR wasn't meant for people who are terminally ill or have severe health problems. CPR is not likely to be successful for these people.
  • Quality of life would suffer. Sometimes CPR is only partly successful. Though the patient survives, they may suffer damage to the brain or other organs or permanently may be dependent on a machine to breathe. This can be particularly true for the elderly and very frail.
  • Death is expected soon. Persons with terminal illness may not want aggressive interventions but prefer a natural peaceful death.

Patients have the legal and moral right to accept or refuse medical treatments, including CPR. Like many aspects of health care, the decisions about treatment are made together by the patient (or when a patient is unable to speak for him/herself, a health care proxy or family member) and the physician and other health care providers.

Basic CPR includes vigorous chest compressions to restore heart function and mouth-to-mouth breathing to restore lung function.

Advanced CPR offers additional interventions which can include:

  • Intubation - The insertion of a tube into the mouth or nose to help with breathing.
  • Mechanical Ventilation - The use of a machine to move air into the lungs.
  • Medications - Given through a vein, drugs can help with blood pressure regulation, heart rhythm, and blood flow.
  • Cardioversion - The use of a controlled electrical shock to change heart rhythm.

Like all health care decisions, a decision about resuscitation should be based on a combination of your own values and preferences together with the medical facts and options for treatment. This should occur in a conversation with your physician and other health care providers that you know and trust. Talk to your doctor about what he/she would recommend, knowing you and your condition. Think about what is important to you and talk to family members and friends. It may be helpful to seek counseling from clergy, therapists or social workers, especially when you are making a decision for someone else.

To change a DNR orders, talk to your physician. Because the DNR orders are a physician's order, the physician must be involved to change it.

No, not without a specific discussion about it. All other medically indicated treatment is continued, unless you decide to limit it.

No. There is a special form that must be filled out for the DNR orders to be honored in the community. The form is issued to physicians from the Department of Public Health (DPH) and is called the Massachusetts DPH Comfort Care/DNR orders Verification Form. Ask your physician if you want to complete one.

If you are unable to communicate your wishes, the health care team relies on your advance care directives (such as a health care proxy or living will). If these are unavailable, a family member is asked to make decisions for you, based on what he/she believes are your wishes.

Talk to your physician, nurse or other members of your health care team. If you are not currently an inpatient at Brigham and Women's Faulkner Hospital, please contact your regular primary care physician (PCP) for more information about DNR orders.

Cardiac Chest Compression:
The force applied by pressing with both arms over the mid-chest to restore circulation of blood by the heart. Because a great deal of force is needed, there can be injury to the surrounding area as a result.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The vigorous emergency procedure to restore heart and lung function in someone whose heart or lungs have stopped working. Basic CPR involves chest compression and mouth-to-mouth breathing. Advanced CPR includes the use of medications to regulate blood pressure and heart rhythm, controlled electrical shock to change heart rhythm, and intubation and mechanical support of breathing.

DNR order:
The physician's order to withhold resuscitation. No CPR.

DPH Comfort Care/DNR:
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health document that verifies to emergency medical personnel that the person does not want resuscitation.

Cardioversion or Defibrillation:
The use of controlled electrical shock to treat certain kinds of heart rhythm problems.


A tube inserted through the mouth or nose to open the person's airway to assist with breathing. Intubation prevents a patient from talking or eating by mouth.

Mechanical Ventilation:
The use of a machine that pumps air into the lungs of a person who is unable to breathe on his/her own.

Medications for Advance Life Support:
The use of very potent medications given through the veins that help to correct problems with blood pressure ("pressors"), heart rate and rhythm.

The use of basic or advanced life support treatments in an emergency situation begun when someone has stopped breathing or whose heart has stopped beating.

Research Shows

In a seminal study of teacher expectations, researchers randomly assigned students from disadvantaged backgrounds to either an experimental group or a control group, telling teachers that the experimental group of students had high potential. At the end of the study:

  • The “high-potential students” outperformed the control group. This has become known as the Pygmalion effect, a type of self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • Even when students in the control group improved their performance, their teachers did not acknowledge or praise their increase in achievement.
    (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968)

Students whose teachers have high expectations for them perform better on achievement tests than do students for whom teachers have low expectations.

  • Teacher expectations were higher for European-American and Asian-American students than for African-American and Latino students with similar achievement levels.
    (McKown & Weinstein, 2008)