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Is there a formal name for the “love” of arguing?

Is there a formal name for the “love” of arguing?



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Most of people drop discussion easily. Some others don't. As if they would like to argue. They feel that they have to demonstrate something.

Is there a formal trait to describe people who enjoy arguing and the behavior of enjoying an argument?


I can't think of any clinical term for it, but a contentious individual is one who is eager to fight. Another term, pugnacious, is a little less derogatory than contentious.


10 Humanistic Approach Strengths and Weaknesses

Humanism, humanist, and humanistic are psychological terms which relate to an approach to study the whole person, as well as his or her uniqueness. These terms are referred in psychology to have the same approach. Humanistic approach, at some point, is named phenomenological in which the study of a personality is focused on the subjective experience of an individual.

Will a humanistic approach be a favorable way to deal with various aspects of human existence? Perhaps a number of strengths and weaknesses can serve as a guide to justify this issue.

List of Strengths of Humanistic Approach

1. Focus on the Individual Behavior
Instead of focusing on the unconscious behavior, genes, and mind among others, it has shifted its attention to the individual or entire person.

2. Satisfies the Idea of Most People
As humanistic approach values self-fulfillment and personal ideals, it satisfies the idea of most people regarding the meaning of being human. This focuses more on humankind’s positive nature and free will that is relative to change.

3. More Behavioral Insights
It is easier to acquire a genuine insight and complete information due to the qualitative data that can be associated to behavior.

4. Individualistic Methods of Study
It highlights the importance of a more idiographic and individualistic methods of study. Humanism can also be favorable to different professions, including criminology, history, and literature because humanistic thought has a basis that strikes a hint in all that is considered to be human.

5. Person-Centered Counseling
The non-directional nature of person-centered counseling will allow clients to feel more comfortable when communicating with counselors. More so, clients are considered their equals as they don’t claim to be experts.

List of Weaknesses of Humanistic Approach

1. Promotes Frustration Among Clients
Allowing clients to think for themselves can be confusing for those who are not capable of doing so. Likewise, their clients may feel frustrated because they will not be provided with explanations for their problems.

2. Opposition to Deterministic Laws of Science
Humanistic approach supports free will in which proponents have opposing beliefs in deterministic laws. Accordingly, determinism states that there is only a single course of events that is possible, which contradicts that of the existence of free will.

3. Ethnocentricity of Humanistic Approach
This type of approach can be biased and centered on the Western culture only. For this matter, it can be said that it will influence those who have diverse cultures to follow and adopt even if it contradicts to their beliefs.

4. Experience is Required
In a classroom environment, for instance, the teacher’s capability is a very important role in the success of the humanistic approach. This is because in a humanist classroom, the teacher should facilitate students and their open expressions towards feelings in which traditional teaching doesn’t emphasize on it.

5. Learning Style Issues
Each student has unique learning styles that the humanist teacher must employ for that particular student. However, such styles and evaluations can be very unwieldy and unorganized.

Humanistic approach can only be applied to few areas of psychology, but it can provide better insights into the behavior of the individual through qualitative methods. Likewise, it can offer a more comprehensive view on human behavior.


Deductive and Inductive Arguments

When assessing the quality of an argument, we ask how well its premises support its conclusion. More specifically, we ask whether the argument is either deductively valid or inductively strong.

A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be deductively valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument’s premises are true. This point can be expressed also by saying that, in a deductive argument, the premises are intended to provide such strong support for the conclusion that, if the premises are true, then it would be impossible for the conclusion to be false. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a (deductively) valid argument. If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said also to be sound. All arguments are either valid or invalid, and either sound or unsound there is no middle ground, such as being somewhat valid.

Here is a valid deductive argument:

It’s sunny in Singapore. If it’s sunny in Singapore, then he won’t be carrying an umbrella. So, he won’t be carrying an umbrella.

The conclusion follows the word “So”. The two premises of this argument would, if true, guarantee the truth of the conclusion. However, we have been given no information that would enable us to decide whether the two premises are both true, so we cannot assess whether the argument is deductively sound. It is one or the other, but we do not know which. If it turns out that the argument has a false premise and so is unsound, this won’t change the fact that it is valid.

Here is a mildly strong inductive argument:

Every time I’ve walked by that dog, it hasn’t tried to bite me. So, the next time I walk by that dog it won’t try to bite me.

An inductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be strong enough that, if the premises were to be true, then it would be unlikely that the conclusion is false. So, an inductive argument’s success or strength is a matter of degree, unlike with deductive arguments. There is no standard term for a successful inductive argument, but this article uses the term “strong.” Inductive arguments that are not strong are said to be weak there is no sharp line between strong and weak. The argument about the dog biting me would be stronger if we couldn’t think of any relevant conditions for why the next time will be different than previous times. The argument also will be stronger the more times there were when I did walk by the dog. The argument will be weaker the fewer times I have walked by the dog. It will be weaker if relevant conditions about the past time will be different next time, such as that in the past the dog has been behind a closed gate, but next time the gate will be open.

An inductive argument can be affected by acquiring new premises (evidence), but a deductive argument cannot be. For example, this is a reasonably strong inductive argument:

Today, John said he likes Romona.
So, John likes Romona today.

but its strength is changed radically when we add this premise:

John told Felipé today that he didn’t really like Romona.

The distinction between deductive and inductive argumentation was first noticed by the Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) in ancient Greece. The difference between deductive and inductive arguments does not lie in the words used within the arguments, but rather in the intentions of the arguer. It comes from the relationship the arguer takes there to be between the premises and the conclusion. If the arguer believes that the truth of the premises definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion, then the argument is deductive. If the arguer believes that the truth of the premises provides only good reasons to believe the conclusion is probably true, then the argument is inductive. If we who are assessing the quality of the argument have no information about the intentions of the arguer, then we check for both. That is, we assess the argument to see whether it is deductively valid and whether it is inductively strong.

The concept of deductive validity can be given alternative definitions to help you grasp the concept. Below are five different definitions of the same concept. It is common to drop the word deductive from the term deductively valid:

  1. An argument is valid if the premises can’t all be true without the conclusion also being true.
  2. An argument is valid if the truth of all its premises forces the conclusion to be true.
  3. An argument is valid if it would be inconsistent for all its premises to be true and its conclusion to be false.
  4. An argument is valid if its conclusion follows with certainty from its premises.
  5. An argument is valid if it has no counterexample, that is, a possible situation that makes all the premises true and the conclusion false.

Some analysts prefer to distinguish inductive arguments from “conductive” arguments the latter are arguments giving explicit reasons for and against a conclusion, and requiring the evaluator of the argument to weigh these competing considerations, that is, to consider the pros and cons. This article considers conductive arguments to be a kind of inductive argument.

The noun “deduction” refers to the process of advancing or establishing a deductive argument, or going through a process of reasoning that can be reconstructed as a deductive argument. “Induction” refers to the process of advancing an inductive argument, or making use of reasoning that can be reconstructed as an inductive argument.

Although inductive strength is a matter of degree, deductive validity and deductive soundness are not. In this sense, deductive reasoning is much more cut and dried than inductive reasoning. Nevertheless, inductive strength is not a matter of personal preference it is a matter of whether the premise ought to promote a higher degree of belief in the conclusion.

Because deductive arguments are those in which the truth of the conclusion is thought to be completely guaranteed and not just made probable by the truth of the premises, if the argument is a sound one, then we say the conclusion is “contained within” the premises that is, the conclusion does not go beyond what the premises implicitly require. Think of sound deductive arguments as squeezing the conclusion out of the premises within which it is hidden. For this reason, deductive arguments usually turn crucially upon definitions and rules of mathematics and formal logic.

Consider how the rules of formal logic apply to this deductive argument:

John is ill. If John is ill, then he won’t be able to attend our meeting today. Therefore, John won’t be able to attend our meeting today.

That argument is valid due to its formal or logical structure. To see why, notice that if the word ‘ill’ were replaced with ‘happy’, the argument would still be valid because it would retain its special logical structure (called modus ponens by logicians). Here is the form of any argument having the structure of modus ponens:

The capital letters should be thought of as variables that can be replaced with declarative sentences, or statements, or propositions, namely items that are true or false. The investigation of logical forms that involve whole sentences and not their subjects and verbs and other parts is called Propositional Logic.

The question of whether all, or merely most, valid deductive arguments are valid because of their logical structure is still controversial in the field of the philosophy of logic, but that question will not be explored further in this article.

Inductive arguments can take very wide-ranging forms. Some have the form of making a claim about a population or set based only on information from a sample of that population, a subset. Other inductive arguments draw conclusions by appeal to evidence, or authority, or causal relationships. There are other forms.

Here is a somewhat strong inductive argument having the form of an argument based on authority:

The police said John committed the murder. So, John committed the murder.

Here is an inductive argument based on evidence:

The witness said John committed the murder. So, John committed the murder.

Here is a stronger inductive argument based on better evidence:

Two independent witnesses claimed John committed the murder. John’s fingerprints are on the murder weapon. John confessed to the crime. So, John committed the murder.

This last argument, if its premises are known to be true, is no doubt good enough for a jury to convict John, but none of these three arguments about John committing the murder is strong enough to be called “valid,” at least not in the technical sense of deductively valid. However, some lawyers will tell their juries that these are valid arguments, so we critical thinkers need to be on the alert as to how people around us are using the term “valid.” You have to be alert to what they mean rather than what they say. From the barest clues, the English detective Sherlock Holmes cleverly “deduced” who murdered whom, but actually he made only an educated guess. Strictly speaking, he produced an inductive argument and not a deductive one. Charles Darwin, who discovered the process of evolution, is famous for his “deduction” that circular atolls in the oceans are actually coral growths on the top of barely submerged volcanoes, but he really performed an induction, not a deduction.

It is worth noting that some dictionaries and texts define “deduction” as reasoning from the general to specific and define “induction” as reasoning from the specific to the general. However, there are many inductive arguments that do not have that form, for example, “I saw her kiss him, really kiss him, so I’m sure she’s having an affair.”

The mathematical proof technique called “mathematical induction” is deductive and not inductive. Proofs that make use of mathematical induction typically take the following form:

Property P is true of the natural number 0.
For all natural numbers n, if P holds of n then P also holds of n + 1.
Therefore, P is true of all natural numbers.

When such a proof is given by a mathematician, and when all the premises are true, then the conclusion follows necessarily. Therefore, such an inductive argument is deductive. It is deductively sound, too.

Because the difference between inductive and deductive arguments involves the strength of evidence which the author believes the premises provide for the conclusion, inductive and deductive arguments differ with regard to the standards of evaluation that are applicable to them. The difference does not have to do with the content or subject matter of the argument, nor with the presence or absence of any particular word. Indeed, the same utterance may be used to present either a deductive or an inductive argument, depending on what the person advancing it believes. Consider as an example:

Dom Perignon is a champagne, so it must be made in France.

It might be clear from context that the speaker believes that having been made in the Champagne area of France is part of the defining feature of “champagne” and so the conclusion follows from the premise by definition. If it is the intention of the speaker that the evidence is of this sort, then the argument is deductive. However, it may be that no such thought is in the speaker’s mind. He or she may merely believe that nearly all champagne is made in France, and may be reasoning probabilistically. If this is his or her intention, then the argument is inductive.

As noted, the distinction between deductive and inductive has to do with the strength of the justification that the arguer intends that the premises provide for the conclusion. Another complication in our discussion of deduction and induction is that the arguer might intend the premises to justify the conclusion when in fact the premises provide no justification at all. Here is an example:

All odd numbers are integers.
All even numbers are integers.
Therefore, all odd numbers are even numbers.

This argument is invalid because the premises provide no support whatsoever for the conclusion. However, if this argument were ever seriously advanced, we must assume that the author would believe that the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Therefore, this argument is still deductive. It is not inductive.

Given the way the terms “deductive argument” and “inductive argument” are defined here, an argument is always one or the other and never both, but in deciding which one of the two it is, it is common to ask whether it meets both the deductive standards and inductive standards. Given a set of premises and their intended conclusion, we analysts will ask whether it is deductively valid, and, if so, whether it is also deductively sound. If it is not deductively valid, then we may go on to assess whether it is inductively strong.

We are very likely to use the information that the argument is not deductively valid to ask ourselves what premises, if they were to be assumed, would make the argument be valid. Then we might ask whether these premises were implicit and intended originally. Similarly, we might ask what premises are needed to improve the strength of an inductive argument, and we might ask whether these premises were intended all along. If so, then we change our mind about what argument existed was back in the original passage. So, the application of deductive and inductive standards is used in the process of extracting the argument from the passage within which it is embedded. The process goes like this: Extract the argument from the passage assess it with deductive and inductive standards perhaps revise the decision about which argument existed in the original passage then reassess this new argument using our deductive and inductive standards.

Implicit premises and implicit features of explicit premises can play important roles in argument evaluation. Suppose we want to know whether Julius Caesar did conquer Rome. In response, some historian might point out that it could be concluded with certainty from these two pieces of information:

The general of the Roman Legions of Gaul crossed the Rubicon River and conquered Rome.

Caesar was the general of the Roman Legions in Gaul at that time.

That would produce a valid argument. But now notice that, if “at that time” were missing from the second piece of information, then the argument would not be valid. Here is why. Maybe Caesar was the general at one time, but Tiberius was the general at the time of the river crossing and Rome conquering. If the phrase “at that time” were missing, you the analyst have to worry about how likely it is that the phrase was intended. So, you are faced with two arguments, one valid and one invalid, and you don’t know which is the intended argument.

Author Information

IEP Staff
The IEP is actively seeking an author who will write a more elaborate replacement article.


Why Your Name Matters

In 1948, two professors at Harvard University published a study of thirty-three hundred men who had recently graduated, looking at whether their names had any bearing on their academic performance. The men with unusual names, the study found, were more likely to have flunked out or to have exhibited symptoms of psychological neurosis than those with more common names. The Mikes were doing just fine, but the Berriens were having trouble. A rare name, the professors surmised, had a negative psychological effect on its bearer.

Since then, researchers have continued to study the effects of names, and, in the decades after the 1948 study, these findings have been widely reproduced. Some recent research suggests that names can influence choice of profession, where we live, whom we marry, the grades we earn, the stocks we invest in, whether we’re accepted to a school or are hired for a particular job, and the quality of our work in a group setting. Our names can even determine whether we give money to disaster victims: if we share an initial with the name of a hurricane, according to one study, we are far more likely to donate to relief funds after it hits.

Much of the apparent influence of names on behavior has been attributed to what’s known as the implicit-egotism effect: we are generally drawn to the things and people that most resemble us. Because we value and identify with our own names, and initials, the logic goes, we prefer things that have something in common with them. For instance, if I’m choosing between two brands of cars, all things being equal, I’d prefer a Mazda or a Kia.

That view, however, may not withstand closer scrutiny. The psychologist Uri Simonsohn, from the University of Pennsylvania, has questioned many of the studies that purport to demonstrate the implicit-egotism effect, arguing that the findings are statistical flukes that arise from poor methodology. “It’s like a magician,” Simonsohn told me. “He shows you a trick, and you say, ‘I know it’s not real, but how did he pull it off?’ It’s all in the methodology.” A problem that he cites in some of these studies is an ignorance of base rates—the over-all frequency with which something, like a name, occurs in the population at large. It may be appealing to think that someone named Dan would prefer to be a doctor, but we have to ask whether there are so many doctor Dans simply because Dan is a common name, well-represented in many professions. If that’s the case, the implicit-egotism effect is no longer valid.

There are also researchers who have been more measured in their assessments of the link between name and life outcome. In 1984, the psychologist Debra Crisp and her colleagues found that though more common names were better liked, they had no impact on a person’s educational achievement. In 2012, the psychologists Hui Bai and Kathleen Briggs concluded that “the name initial is at best a very limited unconscious prime, if any.” While a person’s name may unconsciously influence his or her thinking, its effects on decision-making are limited. Follow-up studies have also questioned the link between names and longevity, career choice and success, geographic and marriage preferences, and academic achievement.

However, it may not be the case that name effects don’t exist perhaps they just need to be reinterpreted. In 2004, the economists Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan created five thousand résumés in response to job ads posted in the classifieds in Chicago and Boston newspapers. Using Massachusetts birth certificates from between 1974 and 1979, Bertrand and Mullainathan determined which names appeared at a high frequency in one race but at a low frequency in another, creating groups of what they termed “white-sounding names” (like Emily Walsh and Greg Baker) and “black-sounding names” (like Lakisha Washington and Jamal Jones). They also created two types of candidates: a higher-quality group, with more experience and a more complete profile, and a lower-quality group, with some obvious gaps in employment or background. They sent two résumés from each qualification group to every employer, one with “black-sounding” name and the other with a “white-sounding” one (a total of four CVs per employer). They found that the “white-sounding” candidates received fifty per cent more callbacks, and that the advantage a résumé with a “white-sounding” name had over a résumé with a “black-sounding” name was roughly equivalent to eight more years of work experience. An average of one of every ten “white” résumés received a callback, versus one of every fifteen “black” résumés. Names, in other words, send signals about who we are and where we come from.

These findings have been demonstrated internationally as well. A Swedish study compared immigrants who had changed their Slavic, Asian, or African names, such as Kovacevic and Mohammed, to more Swedish-sounding, or neutral, ones, like Lindberg and Johnson. The economists Mahmood Arai and Peter Skogman Thoursie, from Stockholm University, found that this kind of name change substantially improved earnings: the immigrants with new names made an average of twenty-six per cent more than those who chose to keep their names.

The effects of name-signalling—what names say about ethnicity, religion, social sphere, and socioeconomic background—may begin long before someone enters the workforce. In a study of children in a Florida school district, conducted between 1994 and 2001, the economist David Figlio demonstrated that a child’s name influenced how he or she was treated by the teacher, and that differential treatment, in turn, translated to test scores. Figlio isolated the effects of the students’ names by comparing siblings—same background, different names. Children with names that were linked to low socioeconomic status or being black, as measured by the approach used by Bertrand and Mullainathan, were met with lower teacher expectations. Unsurprisingly, they then performed more poorly than their counterparts with non-black, higher-status names. Figlio found, for instance, that “a boy named ‘Damarcus’ is estimated to have 1.1 national percentile points lower math and reading scores than would his brother named ‘Dwayne,’ all else equal, and ‘Damarcus’ would in turn have three-quarters of a percentile ranking higher test scores than his brother named Da’Quan.’ ” Conversely, children with Asian-sounding names (also measured by birth-record frequency) were met with higher expectations, and were more frequently placed in gifted programs.


113 Good Research Paper Topics

Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.

Arts/Culture

    • Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance.
    • Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
    • How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
    • How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
    • How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
    • How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?

    Current Events

      • What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
      • How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
      • How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
      • Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
      • What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
      • What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
      • How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
      • How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
      • How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
      • What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
      • What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
      • What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
      • Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain).

      Education

        • Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
        • Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
        • Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
        • Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
        • Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
        • How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
        • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method?
        • Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
        • What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
        • How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
        • What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
        • Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
        • Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
        • Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
        • How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
        • Should graduate students be able to form unions?

        Ethics

          • What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
          • How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
          • Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
          • Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
          • How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
          • How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
          • Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?

          Government

            • Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
            • Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
            • Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
            • Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
            • Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
            • Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
            • Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?

            Health

              • Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
              • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
              • How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
              • How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
              • What are the most effective ways to treat depression?
              • What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
              • Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
              • What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
              • What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
              • Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
              • Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
              • How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
              • Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
              • What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
              • How does stress affect the body?

              History

                • Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
                • What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
                • Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
                • How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
                • What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
                • What were the impacts of British rule in India?
                • Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
                • What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
                • What were the causes of the Civil War?
                • How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
                • Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
                • What caused Hitler's rise to power?
                • Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
                • What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
                • How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
                • What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide?

                Religion

                  • Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
                  • Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
                  • How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
                  • How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
                  • What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/agnosticism in the United States?
                  • What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
                  • How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?

                  Science/Environment

                    • How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
                    • How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
                    • Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
                    • Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
                    • How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
                    • How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
                    • What are the pros and cons of fracking?
                    • What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
                    • What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
                    • How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
                    • Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
                    • Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
                    • What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
                    • What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
                    • How are black holes created?

                    Technology

                      • Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
                      • How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
                      • Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
                      • How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
                      • Has social media made people more or less connected?
                      • What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence?
                      • Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
                      • What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
                      • How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
                      • When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
                      • Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?


                      2. Moral, one of the types of authority

                      This type of authority is practically the opposite of the previous one. In this case, the person or entity’s power is recognized. However, in a social or collective aspect, it doesn’t hold a position that grants influence to it.

                      In this type of authority, what matters most is subjective approval or sanction instead of reward or punishment. Moral authority gains power based on the respect it rises on others. The source of its influence lies in their values, experience, knowledge, among others.

                      “Moral authority is never retained by any attempt to hold on to it. It comes without seeking and is retained without effort.”

                      -Mahatma Gandhi-


                      Using a person’s name in conversation

                      Using a person’s name in conversation creates a culture of respect, recognition and consideration for the discussion. Here are a few considerations for using a person’s name.

                      Your name is what people call you, right? It&rsquos part of your identity, a label, a saying. Your name is your identity, how you&rsquore recognized and what you respond to. In this two-part article series, we&rsquore going to discover the importance of using a person&rsquos name and some tricks to remembering names.

                      Most people put a lot of value in their name, and they should! It&rsquos part of who they are. A famous quote from Dale Carnegie is, &ldquoA person&rsquos name is to him or her the sweetest and most important sound in any language.&rdquo What about seeing the value in using another person&rsquos name? As much as we like to be recognized and called by our name, it&rsquos important we use others&rsquo names as much as possible too.

                      Using a person&rsquos name in conversation has several benefits. It creates a culture of respect, recognition and consideration for the discussion. That&rsquos so important because if you consider a conversation that goes in the opposite direction, individuals may be left wondering if they should have even been talking to that person.

                      When using someone&rsquos name, there are a few considerations you may want to take according to Changing Minds:

                      • Acknowledge identify. A person&rsquos name is part of who they are. Using their name is like handling the person, so be careful with it.
                      • Grab attention. Using someone&rsquos name can be an effective way of breaking into conversation. It can also be effective when a person seems distracted or has disappeared off into their own head.
                      • Formal and informal. Using a formal name is often associated with obedience and can be seen as a sign of respect. However, you must watch for an adverse reaction and understand that using a formal name may cause an adverse reaction. Informal usage of a name is typically more casual and friendly, but be warned that using an informal name may cause you to be seen as presumptuous. A suggested approach is to ask the person what they preferred to be called, thus gaining permission to use the form of their name they prefer.
                      • Beware of overdoing it. Be careful when using a person&rsquos name. If you use it too much, you may appear that you&rsquore trying to manipulate them, which is likely to have the reserve effect you desired.

                      Using someone&rsquos name, and using it correctly, is a skill that can be practiced. Consciously acknowledge that it&rsquos a skill you want to work on and then ask a family member, friend or colleague to help you by listening to you talk and providing you with constructive feedback. This will take self-motivation, self-discipline, resilience, communication and social skills. Over time, not only will you be able to effectively use a person&rsquos name in conversation, you may inspire them to want to work on the same skill!


                      The difference between logical fallacies and cognitive biases

                      While logical fallacies and cognitive biases appear to be similar to each other, they are two different phenomena. Specifically, while logical fallacies are flawed patterns of argumentation, and are therefore a philosophical concept, cognitive biases are systematic errors in cognition, and are therefore a psychological concept.

                      Cognitive biases often occur at a more basic level of thinking, particularly when they’re rooted in people’s intuition, and they can lead to the use of various logical fallacies.

                      For example, the appeal to novelty is a logical fallacy that occurs when something is assumed to be either good or better than something else, simply because it’s perceived as being new and novel.

                      In some cases, people might use this fallacy due to a cognitive bias that causes them to instinctively prefer things that they perceive as newer. However, people can experience this instinctive preference for newer things without it leading to the use of the appeal to novelty, in cases where they recognize this preference and account for it properly. Furthermore, people can use arguments that rely on the appeal to novelty even if they don’t experience this instinctive preference, and even if they don’t truly believe in what they’re saying.

                      Overall, the main difference between logical fallacies and cognitive biases is that logical fallacies are a philosophical concept, that has to do with argumentation, while cognitive biases are a psychological concept, that has to do with cognition. In some cases, there is an association between cognitive biases and certain logical fallacies, but there are many situations where one appears entirely without the other.


                      Syllogism

                      For those trained in formal argument, the syllogism is a classical form of deduction. One example is the inference that "kindness is praiseworthy" from the premises "every virtue is praiseworthy" and "kindness is a virtue." "Syllogism" came to English through Anglo-French from Latin syllogismus, which in turn can be traced back through Greek to the verb syllogizesthai, meaning "to infer." In Greek logizesthai means "to calculate" and derives from logos, meaning "word" or "reckoning." "Syl-" comes from syn-, meaning "with" or "together."


                      Is there a formal name for the &ldquolove&rdquo of arguing? - Psychology

                      INTERVIEWING VS. INTERROGATION

                      What is the Difference between Interviewing and Interrogation?

                      Interviews and interrogations are designed differently in both their approach and purpose. However the goal of both interviews and interrogations set out to do one thing to find the truth. Additional commonalities of an interview and interrogation in a forensic setting will include the fact that there is pre-incident behavior followed by the incident behavior, and finally the post incident behavior of a client. All three are critical in obtaining information in an interview. According to our text “ each of the three stages and how each stage of the criminal behavior can help in determining the culpability of each individual involved (if there is more than one person involved and to what degree they were involved” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). The more information gathered before the interview the better prepared the interviewer will be in obtaining additional information. For example the interviewer in a forensic setting may help determine the following questions “Are you interviewing someone who has no knowledge of the crime? Simply just witnessed the crime, helped plan the crime, committed the crime, helped conceal the crime after it happened, shared in the proceeds of the crime? The interviewer armed with this intellectual advantage is much better prepared to pursue the interview” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). On the other hand, an interrogation may ask the very same questions to obtain the same type of information however “ the interrogator has also gained much more factual leverage to obtain a confession” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). Therefore the goal of the interviewer is to gather information and the goal of the interrogator is to obtain a confession and the goal of both interview and interrogations is to search for the truth.

                      The interviewer and interrogator possess other commonalities such as they both have excellent communication skills in order to deal with all different types of personalities and walks of life both are professional, good listeners, are not judgmental, are fair, understanding, and in control. They both do not have the same goals. The interviewer gathers information whereas the interrogator attempts to obtain a confession the interview is non-accusatory whereas an interrogation is more accusatory The interview is less structured allows the suspect/client to do most of the speaking, actually about 95% of the time whereas the interrogation is more structured and the suspect typical speaks about 5% of the time. An interview can vary in locations such as an office, home or place of work whereas an interrogation is typically done in a law enforcement environment or correctional facility.

                      Moreover the personal space given between client and interviewer is typically performed in a personal social range anywhere from what is considered personal range of 18 inches to 4 feet to a social range of 4-12 feet. Whereas interrogations will typically begin in the personal range and end up in the intimate range which is approximately 18 inches to where actual physical contact may occur depending on the technique being used by the interrogator. Additionally, an interview may include some writing during the interview whereas there is no writing involved in an interrogation until the suspect confesses Miranda warning is not always given and is not legally required during an interview however Miranda warning is required during an interrogation. Furthermore, another commonality is that both interviewer and interrogator will display truthful nonverbal behavior. Finally, interviews will typically have a time limit of about 30 minutes, although that can vary from case to case and an interrogation typically does not have a time limit. However, it is not ethically to interrogate someone for long periods of time, as it may result in false or coerced confessions as a result of fatigue by the suspect/client.

                      According to Argosy University “Psychology professionals and mental health professionals do not participate in interrogations, but they do interview others to develop information. They serve as consultants to the police and investigators about improving methods of interrogating suspects or interviewing witnesses” (Argosy 2011).

                      The Psychology Professional and Interrogation

                      According to the APA “Years of review has revealed that psychology has played a significant and vital role in promoting ethical interrogations in order to safeguard the welfare of detainees and facilitate communications with them. By staying engaged, APA is able to work with the many parties, both within and outside of the military, who are dedicated to preventing torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment” (APA 2006).

                      An example of a forensic psychology professional involved in an interrogation may include consulting a police agency in interrogating a suspect. If the forensic psychologists finds that the investigator/interrogator is denying the suspect the use of bathroom privileges, food, sleep, water, and long hours of interrogation without a break then the forensic psychologist should step in and address this issue.

                      The forensic psychologist can offer psychological approaches to interrogation that will prevent the interrogator from using force, torture, or even coercion. The forensic psychologist can also help interrogators in understanding the verbal and nonverbal cues of the suspect/client, cultural cues and common cultural behaviors in addition to the interrogators behavior. The forensic psychologist can assist in delivering an “e thical and effective interrogation by building a rapport with the suspect, respecting the suspect’s dignity and cultural beliefs. The ultimate goal in interrogations is to elicit information and to obtain confessions, and it is the forensic psychologists role in the interrogation process to assist law enforcement, investigators, and military personal in doing so without the use of torture and other forms of inhumane degrading treatment” (APA 2006).

                      APA Ethics and Resolution on Interrogation

                      A psychology professional can participate in an interrogation by way of consulting the interrogator on proper and ethical interrogation techniques. If a psychology professional is aware of the investigator/LEO-law enforcement officer providing cruel and unusual punishment and/or torture then they must report it to the appropriate authorities. This may cause an ethical conflict with the law enforcement agency and the psychology professional. Principle A of the code of ethics for the psychologists is to do no harm or “ Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research” (APA 2010). If a psychology professional looks the other way that would be in violation of the code of ethics in addition to the Council Resolutions: Resolution against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

                      Resolution against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment

                      According to the resolution against torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment “t hat regardless of their roles, psychologists shall not knowingly engage in, tolerate, direct, support, advise, or offer training in torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment that psychologists shall not provide knowingly any research, instruments, or knowledge that facilitates the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment that should torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment evolve during a procedure where a psychologist is present, the psychologist shall attempt to intervene to stop such behavior, and failing that exit the procedure and finally that psychologists shall be alert to acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment and have an ethical responsibility to report these acts to the appropriate authorities” (APA 2006).

                      American Psychological Association (2006) Council Resolutions: Resolution Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Retrieved on May 11, 2011 from:

                      American Psychological Association (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: 2010 Amendments. Retrieved on May 11, 2011 from:

                      Gordon, N. & Fleisher, W. (2011). Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques.


                      Is there a formal name for the &ldquolove&rdquo of arguing? - Psychology

                      INTERVIEWING VS. INTERROGATION

                      What is the Difference between Interviewing and Interrogation?

                      Interviews and interrogations are designed differently in both their approach and purpose. However the goal of both interviews and interrogations set out to do one thing to find the truth. Additional commonalities of an interview and interrogation in a forensic setting will include the fact that there is pre-incident behavior followed by the incident behavior, and finally the post incident behavior of a client. All three are critical in obtaining information in an interview. According to our text “ each of the three stages and how each stage of the criminal behavior can help in determining the culpability of each individual involved (if there is more than one person involved and to what degree they were involved” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). The more information gathered before the interview the better prepared the interviewer will be in obtaining additional information. For example the interviewer in a forensic setting may help determine the following questions “Are you interviewing someone who has no knowledge of the crime? Simply just witnessed the crime, helped plan the crime, committed the crime, helped conceal the crime after it happened, shared in the proceeds of the crime? The interviewer armed with this intellectual advantage is much better prepared to pursue the interview” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). On the other hand, an interrogation may ask the very same questions to obtain the same type of information however “ the interrogator has also gained much more factual leverage to obtain a confession” (Gordon & Fleischer 2006). Therefore the goal of the interviewer is to gather information and the goal of the interrogator is to obtain a confession and the goal of both interview and interrogations is to search for the truth.

                      The interviewer and interrogator possess other commonalities such as they both have excellent communication skills in order to deal with all different types of personalities and walks of life both are professional, good listeners, are not judgmental, are fair, understanding, and in control. They both do not have the same goals. The interviewer gathers information whereas the interrogator attempts to obtain a confession the interview is non-accusatory whereas an interrogation is more accusatory The interview is less structured allows the suspect/client to do most of the speaking, actually about 95% of the time whereas the interrogation is more structured and the suspect typical speaks about 5% of the time. An interview can vary in locations such as an office, home or place of work whereas an interrogation is typically done in a law enforcement environment or correctional facility.

                      Moreover the personal space given between client and interviewer is typically performed in a personal social range anywhere from what is considered personal range of 18 inches to 4 feet to a social range of 4-12 feet. Whereas interrogations will typically begin in the personal range and end up in the intimate range which is approximately 18 inches to where actual physical contact may occur depending on the technique being used by the interrogator. Additionally, an interview may include some writing during the interview whereas there is no writing involved in an interrogation until the suspect confesses Miranda warning is not always given and is not legally required during an interview however Miranda warning is required during an interrogation. Furthermore, another commonality is that both interviewer and interrogator will display truthful nonverbal behavior. Finally, interviews will typically have a time limit of about 30 minutes, although that can vary from case to case and an interrogation typically does not have a time limit. However, it is not ethically to interrogate someone for long periods of time, as it may result in false or coerced confessions as a result of fatigue by the suspect/client.

                      According to Argosy University “Psychology professionals and mental health professionals do not participate in interrogations, but they do interview others to develop information. They serve as consultants to the police and investigators about improving methods of interrogating suspects or interviewing witnesses” (Argosy 2011).

                      The Psychology Professional and Interrogation

                      According to the APA “Years of review has revealed that psychology has played a significant and vital role in promoting ethical interrogations in order to safeguard the welfare of detainees and facilitate communications with them. By staying engaged, APA is able to work with the many parties, both within and outside of the military, who are dedicated to preventing torture and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment” (APA 2006).

                      An example of a forensic psychology professional involved in an interrogation may include consulting a police agency in interrogating a suspect. If the forensic psychologists finds that the investigator/interrogator is denying the suspect the use of bathroom privileges, food, sleep, water, and long hours of interrogation without a break then the forensic psychologist should step in and address this issue.

                      The forensic psychologist can offer psychological approaches to interrogation that will prevent the interrogator from using force, torture, or even coercion. The forensic psychologist can also help interrogators in understanding the verbal and nonverbal cues of the suspect/client, cultural cues and common cultural behaviors in addition to the interrogators behavior. The forensic psychologist can assist in delivering an “e thical and effective interrogation by building a rapport with the suspect, respecting the suspect’s dignity and cultural beliefs. The ultimate goal in interrogations is to elicit information and to obtain confessions, and it is the forensic psychologists role in the interrogation process to assist law enforcement, investigators, and military personal in doing so without the use of torture and other forms of inhumane degrading treatment” (APA 2006).

                      APA Ethics and Resolution on Interrogation

                      A psychology professional can participate in an interrogation by way of consulting the interrogator on proper and ethical interrogation techniques. If a psychology professional is aware of the investigator/LEO-law enforcement officer providing cruel and unusual punishment and/or torture then they must report it to the appropriate authorities. This may cause an ethical conflict with the law enforcement agency and the psychology professional. Principle A of the code of ethics for the psychologists is to do no harm or “ Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research” (APA 2010). If a psychology professional looks the other way that would be in violation of the code of ethics in addition to the Council Resolutions: Resolution against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

                      Resolution against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment

                      According to the resolution against torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment “t hat regardless of their roles, psychologists shall not knowingly engage in, tolerate, direct, support, advise, or offer training in torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment that psychologists shall not provide knowingly any research, instruments, or knowledge that facilitates the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment that should torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment evolve during a procedure where a psychologist is present, the psychologist shall attempt to intervene to stop such behavior, and failing that exit the procedure and finally that psychologists shall be alert to acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment and have an ethical responsibility to report these acts to the appropriate authorities” (APA 2006).

                      American Psychological Association (2006) Council Resolutions: Resolution Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Retrieved on May 11, 2011 from:

                      American Psychological Association (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: 2010 Amendments. Retrieved on May 11, 2011 from:

                      Gordon, N. & Fleisher, W. (2011). Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques.


                      Using a person’s name in conversation

                      Using a person’s name in conversation creates a culture of respect, recognition and consideration for the discussion. Here are a few considerations for using a person’s name.

                      Your name is what people call you, right? It&rsquos part of your identity, a label, a saying. Your name is your identity, how you&rsquore recognized and what you respond to. In this two-part article series, we&rsquore going to discover the importance of using a person&rsquos name and some tricks to remembering names.

                      Most people put a lot of value in their name, and they should! It&rsquos part of who they are. A famous quote from Dale Carnegie is, &ldquoA person&rsquos name is to him or her the sweetest and most important sound in any language.&rdquo What about seeing the value in using another person&rsquos name? As much as we like to be recognized and called by our name, it&rsquos important we use others&rsquo names as much as possible too.

                      Using a person&rsquos name in conversation has several benefits. It creates a culture of respect, recognition and consideration for the discussion. That&rsquos so important because if you consider a conversation that goes in the opposite direction, individuals may be left wondering if they should have even been talking to that person.

                      When using someone&rsquos name, there are a few considerations you may want to take according to Changing Minds:

                      • Acknowledge identify. A person&rsquos name is part of who they are. Using their name is like handling the person, so be careful with it.
                      • Grab attention. Using someone&rsquos name can be an effective way of breaking into conversation. It can also be effective when a person seems distracted or has disappeared off into their own head.
                      • Formal and informal. Using a formal name is often associated with obedience and can be seen as a sign of respect. However, you must watch for an adverse reaction and understand that using a formal name may cause an adverse reaction. Informal usage of a name is typically more casual and friendly, but be warned that using an informal name may cause you to be seen as presumptuous. A suggested approach is to ask the person what they preferred to be called, thus gaining permission to use the form of their name they prefer.
                      • Beware of overdoing it. Be careful when using a person&rsquos name. If you use it too much, you may appear that you&rsquore trying to manipulate them, which is likely to have the reserve effect you desired.

                      Using someone&rsquos name, and using it correctly, is a skill that can be practiced. Consciously acknowledge that it&rsquos a skill you want to work on and then ask a family member, friend or colleague to help you by listening to you talk and providing you with constructive feedback. This will take self-motivation, self-discipline, resilience, communication and social skills. Over time, not only will you be able to effectively use a person&rsquos name in conversation, you may inspire them to want to work on the same skill!


                      2. Moral, one of the types of authority

                      This type of authority is practically the opposite of the previous one. In this case, the person or entity’s power is recognized. However, in a social or collective aspect, it doesn’t hold a position that grants influence to it.

                      In this type of authority, what matters most is subjective approval or sanction instead of reward or punishment. Moral authority gains power based on the respect it rises on others. The source of its influence lies in their values, experience, knowledge, among others.

                      “Moral authority is never retained by any attempt to hold on to it. It comes without seeking and is retained without effort.”

                      -Mahatma Gandhi-


                      Deductive and Inductive Arguments

                      When assessing the quality of an argument, we ask how well its premises support its conclusion. More specifically, we ask whether the argument is either deductively valid or inductively strong.

                      A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be deductively valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument’s premises are true. This point can be expressed also by saying that, in a deductive argument, the premises are intended to provide such strong support for the conclusion that, if the premises are true, then it would be impossible for the conclusion to be false. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a (deductively) valid argument. If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said also to be sound. All arguments are either valid or invalid, and either sound or unsound there is no middle ground, such as being somewhat valid.

                      Here is a valid deductive argument:

                      It’s sunny in Singapore. If it’s sunny in Singapore, then he won’t be carrying an umbrella. So, he won’t be carrying an umbrella.

                      The conclusion follows the word “So”. The two premises of this argument would, if true, guarantee the truth of the conclusion. However, we have been given no information that would enable us to decide whether the two premises are both true, so we cannot assess whether the argument is deductively sound. It is one or the other, but we do not know which. If it turns out that the argument has a false premise and so is unsound, this won’t change the fact that it is valid.

                      Here is a mildly strong inductive argument:

                      Every time I’ve walked by that dog, it hasn’t tried to bite me. So, the next time I walk by that dog it won’t try to bite me.

                      An inductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be strong enough that, if the premises were to be true, then it would be unlikely that the conclusion is false. So, an inductive argument’s success or strength is a matter of degree, unlike with deductive arguments. There is no standard term for a successful inductive argument, but this article uses the term “strong.” Inductive arguments that are not strong are said to be weak there is no sharp line between strong and weak. The argument about the dog biting me would be stronger if we couldn’t think of any relevant conditions for why the next time will be different than previous times. The argument also will be stronger the more times there were when I did walk by the dog. The argument will be weaker the fewer times I have walked by the dog. It will be weaker if relevant conditions about the past time will be different next time, such as that in the past the dog has been behind a closed gate, but next time the gate will be open.

                      An inductive argument can be affected by acquiring new premises (evidence), but a deductive argument cannot be. For example, this is a reasonably strong inductive argument:

                      Today, John said he likes Romona.
                      So, John likes Romona today.

                      but its strength is changed radically when we add this premise:

                      John told Felipé today that he didn’t really like Romona.

                      The distinction between deductive and inductive argumentation was first noticed by the Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) in ancient Greece. The difference between deductive and inductive arguments does not lie in the words used within the arguments, but rather in the intentions of the arguer. It comes from the relationship the arguer takes there to be between the premises and the conclusion. If the arguer believes that the truth of the premises definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion, then the argument is deductive. If the arguer believes that the truth of the premises provides only good reasons to believe the conclusion is probably true, then the argument is inductive. If we who are assessing the quality of the argument have no information about the intentions of the arguer, then we check for both. That is, we assess the argument to see whether it is deductively valid and whether it is inductively strong.

                      The concept of deductive validity can be given alternative definitions to help you grasp the concept. Below are five different definitions of the same concept. It is common to drop the word deductive from the term deductively valid:

                      1. An argument is valid if the premises can’t all be true without the conclusion also being true.
                      2. An argument is valid if the truth of all its premises forces the conclusion to be true.
                      3. An argument is valid if it would be inconsistent for all its premises to be true and its conclusion to be false.
                      4. An argument is valid if its conclusion follows with certainty from its premises.
                      5. An argument is valid if it has no counterexample, that is, a possible situation that makes all the premises true and the conclusion false.

                      Some analysts prefer to distinguish inductive arguments from “conductive” arguments the latter are arguments giving explicit reasons for and against a conclusion, and requiring the evaluator of the argument to weigh these competing considerations, that is, to consider the pros and cons. This article considers conductive arguments to be a kind of inductive argument.

                      The noun “deduction” refers to the process of advancing or establishing a deductive argument, or going through a process of reasoning that can be reconstructed as a deductive argument. “Induction” refers to the process of advancing an inductive argument, or making use of reasoning that can be reconstructed as an inductive argument.

                      Although inductive strength is a matter of degree, deductive validity and deductive soundness are not. In this sense, deductive reasoning is much more cut and dried than inductive reasoning. Nevertheless, inductive strength is not a matter of personal preference it is a matter of whether the premise ought to promote a higher degree of belief in the conclusion.

                      Because deductive arguments are those in which the truth of the conclusion is thought to be completely guaranteed and not just made probable by the truth of the premises, if the argument is a sound one, then we say the conclusion is “contained within” the premises that is, the conclusion does not go beyond what the premises implicitly require. Think of sound deductive arguments as squeezing the conclusion out of the premises within which it is hidden. For this reason, deductive arguments usually turn crucially upon definitions and rules of mathematics and formal logic.

                      Consider how the rules of formal logic apply to this deductive argument:

                      John is ill. If John is ill, then he won’t be able to attend our meeting today. Therefore, John won’t be able to attend our meeting today.

                      That argument is valid due to its formal or logical structure. To see why, notice that if the word ‘ill’ were replaced with ‘happy’, the argument would still be valid because it would retain its special logical structure (called modus ponens by logicians). Here is the form of any argument having the structure of modus ponens:

                      The capital letters should be thought of as variables that can be replaced with declarative sentences, or statements, or propositions, namely items that are true or false. The investigation of logical forms that involve whole sentences and not their subjects and verbs and other parts is called Propositional Logic.

                      The question of whether all, or merely most, valid deductive arguments are valid because of their logical structure is still controversial in the field of the philosophy of logic, but that question will not be explored further in this article.

                      Inductive arguments can take very wide-ranging forms. Some have the form of making a claim about a population or set based only on information from a sample of that population, a subset. Other inductive arguments draw conclusions by appeal to evidence, or authority, or causal relationships. There are other forms.

                      Here is a somewhat strong inductive argument having the form of an argument based on authority:

                      The police said John committed the murder. So, John committed the murder.

                      Here is an inductive argument based on evidence:

                      The witness said John committed the murder. So, John committed the murder.

                      Here is a stronger inductive argument based on better evidence:

                      Two independent witnesses claimed John committed the murder. John’s fingerprints are on the murder weapon. John confessed to the crime. So, John committed the murder.

                      This last argument, if its premises are known to be true, is no doubt good enough for a jury to convict John, but none of these three arguments about John committing the murder is strong enough to be called “valid,” at least not in the technical sense of deductively valid. However, some lawyers will tell their juries that these are valid arguments, so we critical thinkers need to be on the alert as to how people around us are using the term “valid.” You have to be alert to what they mean rather than what they say. From the barest clues, the English detective Sherlock Holmes cleverly “deduced” who murdered whom, but actually he made only an educated guess. Strictly speaking, he produced an inductive argument and not a deductive one. Charles Darwin, who discovered the process of evolution, is famous for his “deduction” that circular atolls in the oceans are actually coral growths on the top of barely submerged volcanoes, but he really performed an induction, not a deduction.

                      It is worth noting that some dictionaries and texts define “deduction” as reasoning from the general to specific and define “induction” as reasoning from the specific to the general. However, there are many inductive arguments that do not have that form, for example, “I saw her kiss him, really kiss him, so I’m sure she’s having an affair.”

                      The mathematical proof technique called “mathematical induction” is deductive and not inductive. Proofs that make use of mathematical induction typically take the following form:

                      Property P is true of the natural number 0.
                      For all natural numbers n, if P holds of n then P also holds of n + 1.
                      Therefore, P is true of all natural numbers.

                      When such a proof is given by a mathematician, and when all the premises are true, then the conclusion follows necessarily. Therefore, such an inductive argument is deductive. It is deductively sound, too.

                      Because the difference between inductive and deductive arguments involves the strength of evidence which the author believes the premises provide for the conclusion, inductive and deductive arguments differ with regard to the standards of evaluation that are applicable to them. The difference does not have to do with the content or subject matter of the argument, nor with the presence or absence of any particular word. Indeed, the same utterance may be used to present either a deductive or an inductive argument, depending on what the person advancing it believes. Consider as an example:

                      Dom Perignon is a champagne, so it must be made in France.

                      It might be clear from context that the speaker believes that having been made in the Champagne area of France is part of the defining feature of “champagne” and so the conclusion follows from the premise by definition. If it is the intention of the speaker that the evidence is of this sort, then the argument is deductive. However, it may be that no such thought is in the speaker’s mind. He or she may merely believe that nearly all champagne is made in France, and may be reasoning probabilistically. If this is his or her intention, then the argument is inductive.

                      As noted, the distinction between deductive and inductive has to do with the strength of the justification that the arguer intends that the premises provide for the conclusion. Another complication in our discussion of deduction and induction is that the arguer might intend the premises to justify the conclusion when in fact the premises provide no justification at all. Here is an example:

                      All odd numbers are integers.
                      All even numbers are integers.
                      Therefore, all odd numbers are even numbers.

                      This argument is invalid because the premises provide no support whatsoever for the conclusion. However, if this argument were ever seriously advanced, we must assume that the author would believe that the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Therefore, this argument is still deductive. It is not inductive.

                      Given the way the terms “deductive argument” and “inductive argument” are defined here, an argument is always one or the other and never both, but in deciding which one of the two it is, it is common to ask whether it meets both the deductive standards and inductive standards. Given a set of premises and their intended conclusion, we analysts will ask whether it is deductively valid, and, if so, whether it is also deductively sound. If it is not deductively valid, then we may go on to assess whether it is inductively strong.

                      We are very likely to use the information that the argument is not deductively valid to ask ourselves what premises, if they were to be assumed, would make the argument be valid. Then we might ask whether these premises were implicit and intended originally. Similarly, we might ask what premises are needed to improve the strength of an inductive argument, and we might ask whether these premises were intended all along. If so, then we change our mind about what argument existed was back in the original passage. So, the application of deductive and inductive standards is used in the process of extracting the argument from the passage within which it is embedded. The process goes like this: Extract the argument from the passage assess it with deductive and inductive standards perhaps revise the decision about which argument existed in the original passage then reassess this new argument using our deductive and inductive standards.

                      Implicit premises and implicit features of explicit premises can play important roles in argument evaluation. Suppose we want to know whether Julius Caesar did conquer Rome. In response, some historian might point out that it could be concluded with certainty from these two pieces of information:

                      The general of the Roman Legions of Gaul crossed the Rubicon River and conquered Rome.

                      Caesar was the general of the Roman Legions in Gaul at that time.

                      That would produce a valid argument. But now notice that, if “at that time” were missing from the second piece of information, then the argument would not be valid. Here is why. Maybe Caesar was the general at one time, but Tiberius was the general at the time of the river crossing and Rome conquering. If the phrase “at that time” were missing, you the analyst have to worry about how likely it is that the phrase was intended. So, you are faced with two arguments, one valid and one invalid, and you don’t know which is the intended argument.

                      Author Information

                      IEP Staff
                      The IEP is actively seeking an author who will write a more elaborate replacement article.


                      Why Your Name Matters

                      In 1948, two professors at Harvard University published a study of thirty-three hundred men who had recently graduated, looking at whether their names had any bearing on their academic performance. The men with unusual names, the study found, were more likely to have flunked out or to have exhibited symptoms of psychological neurosis than those with more common names. The Mikes were doing just fine, but the Berriens were having trouble. A rare name, the professors surmised, had a negative psychological effect on its bearer.

                      Since then, researchers have continued to study the effects of names, and, in the decades after the 1948 study, these findings have been widely reproduced. Some recent research suggests that names can influence choice of profession, where we live, whom we marry, the grades we earn, the stocks we invest in, whether we’re accepted to a school or are hired for a particular job, and the quality of our work in a group setting. Our names can even determine whether we give money to disaster victims: if we share an initial with the name of a hurricane, according to one study, we are far more likely to donate to relief funds after it hits.

                      Much of the apparent influence of names on behavior has been attributed to what’s known as the implicit-egotism effect: we are generally drawn to the things and people that most resemble us. Because we value and identify with our own names, and initials, the logic goes, we prefer things that have something in common with them. For instance, if I’m choosing between two brands of cars, all things being equal, I’d prefer a Mazda or a Kia.

                      That view, however, may not withstand closer scrutiny. The psychologist Uri Simonsohn, from the University of Pennsylvania, has questioned many of the studies that purport to demonstrate the implicit-egotism effect, arguing that the findings are statistical flukes that arise from poor methodology. “It’s like a magician,” Simonsohn told me. “He shows you a trick, and you say, ‘I know it’s not real, but how did he pull it off?’ It’s all in the methodology.” A problem that he cites in some of these studies is an ignorance of base rates—the over-all frequency with which something, like a name, occurs in the population at large. It may be appealing to think that someone named Dan would prefer to be a doctor, but we have to ask whether there are so many doctor Dans simply because Dan is a common name, well-represented in many professions. If that’s the case, the implicit-egotism effect is no longer valid.

                      There are also researchers who have been more measured in their assessments of the link between name and life outcome. In 1984, the psychologist Debra Crisp and her colleagues found that though more common names were better liked, they had no impact on a person’s educational achievement. In 2012, the psychologists Hui Bai and Kathleen Briggs concluded that “the name initial is at best a very limited unconscious prime, if any.” While a person’s name may unconsciously influence his or her thinking, its effects on decision-making are limited. Follow-up studies have also questioned the link between names and longevity, career choice and success, geographic and marriage preferences, and academic achievement.

                      However, it may not be the case that name effects don’t exist perhaps they just need to be reinterpreted. In 2004, the economists Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan created five thousand résumés in response to job ads posted in the classifieds in Chicago and Boston newspapers. Using Massachusetts birth certificates from between 1974 and 1979, Bertrand and Mullainathan determined which names appeared at a high frequency in one race but at a low frequency in another, creating groups of what they termed “white-sounding names” (like Emily Walsh and Greg Baker) and “black-sounding names” (like Lakisha Washington and Jamal Jones). They also created two types of candidates: a higher-quality group, with more experience and a more complete profile, and a lower-quality group, with some obvious gaps in employment or background. They sent two résumés from each qualification group to every employer, one with “black-sounding” name and the other with a “white-sounding” one (a total of four CVs per employer). They found that the “white-sounding” candidates received fifty per cent more callbacks, and that the advantage a résumé with a “white-sounding” name had over a résumé with a “black-sounding” name was roughly equivalent to eight more years of work experience. An average of one of every ten “white” résumés received a callback, versus one of every fifteen “black” résumés. Names, in other words, send signals about who we are and where we come from.

                      These findings have been demonstrated internationally as well. A Swedish study compared immigrants who had changed their Slavic, Asian, or African names, such as Kovacevic and Mohammed, to more Swedish-sounding, or neutral, ones, like Lindberg and Johnson. The economists Mahmood Arai and Peter Skogman Thoursie, from Stockholm University, found that this kind of name change substantially improved earnings: the immigrants with new names made an average of twenty-six per cent more than those who chose to keep their names.

                      The effects of name-signalling—what names say about ethnicity, religion, social sphere, and socioeconomic background—may begin long before someone enters the workforce. In a study of children in a Florida school district, conducted between 1994 and 2001, the economist David Figlio demonstrated that a child’s name influenced how he or she was treated by the teacher, and that differential treatment, in turn, translated to test scores. Figlio isolated the effects of the students’ names by comparing siblings—same background, different names. Children with names that were linked to low socioeconomic status or being black, as measured by the approach used by Bertrand and Mullainathan, were met with lower teacher expectations. Unsurprisingly, they then performed more poorly than their counterparts with non-black, higher-status names. Figlio found, for instance, that “a boy named ‘Damarcus’ is estimated to have 1.1 national percentile points lower math and reading scores than would his brother named ‘Dwayne,’ all else equal, and ‘Damarcus’ would in turn have three-quarters of a percentile ranking higher test scores than his brother named Da’Quan.’ ” Conversely, children with Asian-sounding names (also measured by birth-record frequency) were met with higher expectations, and were more frequently placed in gifted programs.


                      113 Good Research Paper Topics

                      Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.

                      Arts/Culture

                        • Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance.
                        • Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
                        • How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
                        • How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
                        • How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
                        • How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?

                        Current Events

                          • What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
                          • How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
                          • How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
                          • Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
                          • What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
                          • What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
                          • How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
                          • How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
                          • How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
                          • What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
                          • What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
                          • What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
                          • Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain).

                          Education

                            • Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
                            • Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
                            • Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
                            • Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
                            • Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
                            • How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
                            • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method?
                            • Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
                            • What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
                            • How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
                            • What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
                            • Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
                            • Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
                            • Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
                            • How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
                            • Should graduate students be able to form unions?

                            Ethics

                              • What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
                              • How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
                              • Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
                              • Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
                              • How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
                              • How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
                              • Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?

                              Government

                                • Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
                                • Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
                                • Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
                                • Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
                                • Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
                                • Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
                                • Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?

                                Health

                                  • Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
                                  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
                                  • How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
                                  • How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
                                  • What are the most effective ways to treat depression?
                                  • What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
                                  • Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
                                  • What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
                                  • What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
                                  • Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
                                  • Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
                                  • How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
                                  • Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
                                  • What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
                                  • How does stress affect the body?

                                  History

                                    • Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
                                    • What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
                                    • Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
                                    • How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
                                    • What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
                                    • What were the impacts of British rule in India?
                                    • Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
                                    • What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
                                    • What were the causes of the Civil War?
                                    • How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
                                    • Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
                                    • What caused Hitler's rise to power?
                                    • Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
                                    • What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
                                    • How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
                                    • What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide?

                                    Religion

                                      • Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
                                      • Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
                                      • How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
                                      • How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
                                      • What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/agnosticism in the United States?
                                      • What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
                                      • How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?

                                      Science/Environment

                                        • How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
                                        • How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
                                        • Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
                                        • Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
                                        • How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
                                        • How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
                                        • What are the pros and cons of fracking?
                                        • What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
                                        • What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
                                        • How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
                                        • Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
                                        • Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
                                        • What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
                                        • What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
                                        • How are black holes created?

                                        Technology

                                          • Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
                                          • How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
                                          • Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
                                          • How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
                                          • Has social media made people more or less connected?
                                          • What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence?
                                          • Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
                                          • What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
                                          • How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
                                          • When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
                                          • Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?


                                          Syllogism

                                          For those trained in formal argument, the syllogism is a classical form of deduction. One example is the inference that "kindness is praiseworthy" from the premises "every virtue is praiseworthy" and "kindness is a virtue." "Syllogism" came to English through Anglo-French from Latin syllogismus, which in turn can be traced back through Greek to the verb syllogizesthai, meaning "to infer." In Greek logizesthai means "to calculate" and derives from logos, meaning "word" or "reckoning." "Syl-" comes from syn-, meaning "with" or "together."


                                          The difference between logical fallacies and cognitive biases

                                          While logical fallacies and cognitive biases appear to be similar to each other, they are two different phenomena. Specifically, while logical fallacies are flawed patterns of argumentation, and are therefore a philosophical concept, cognitive biases are systematic errors in cognition, and are therefore a psychological concept.

                                          Cognitive biases often occur at a more basic level of thinking, particularly when they’re rooted in people’s intuition, and they can lead to the use of various logical fallacies.

                                          For example, the appeal to novelty is a logical fallacy that occurs when something is assumed to be either good or better than something else, simply because it’s perceived as being new and novel.

                                          In some cases, people might use this fallacy due to a cognitive bias that causes them to instinctively prefer things that they perceive as newer. However, people can experience this instinctive preference for newer things without it leading to the use of the appeal to novelty, in cases where they recognize this preference and account for it properly. Furthermore, people can use arguments that rely on the appeal to novelty even if they don’t experience this instinctive preference, and even if they don’t truly believe in what they’re saying.

                                          Overall, the main difference between logical fallacies and cognitive biases is that logical fallacies are a philosophical concept, that has to do with argumentation, while cognitive biases are a psychological concept, that has to do with cognition. In some cases, there is an association between cognitive biases and certain logical fallacies, but there are many situations where one appears entirely without the other.


                                          10 Humanistic Approach Strengths and Weaknesses

                                          Humanism, humanist, and humanistic are psychological terms which relate to an approach to study the whole person, as well as his or her uniqueness. These terms are referred in psychology to have the same approach. Humanistic approach, at some point, is named phenomenological in which the study of a personality is focused on the subjective experience of an individual.

                                          Will a humanistic approach be a favorable way to deal with various aspects of human existence? Perhaps a number of strengths and weaknesses can serve as a guide to justify this issue.

                                          List of Strengths of Humanistic Approach

                                          1. Focus on the Individual Behavior
                                          Instead of focusing on the unconscious behavior, genes, and mind among others, it has shifted its attention to the individual or entire person.

                                          2. Satisfies the Idea of Most People
                                          As humanistic approach values self-fulfillment and personal ideals, it satisfies the idea of most people regarding the meaning of being human. This focuses more on humankind’s positive nature and free will that is relative to change.

                                          3. More Behavioral Insights
                                          It is easier to acquire a genuine insight and complete information due to the qualitative data that can be associated to behavior.

                                          4. Individualistic Methods of Study
                                          It highlights the importance of a more idiographic and individualistic methods of study. Humanism can also be favorable to different professions, including criminology, history, and literature because humanistic thought has a basis that strikes a hint in all that is considered to be human.

                                          5. Person-Centered Counseling
                                          The non-directional nature of person-centered counseling will allow clients to feel more comfortable when communicating with counselors. More so, clients are considered their equals as they don’t claim to be experts.

                                          List of Weaknesses of Humanistic Approach

                                          1. Promotes Frustration Among Clients
                                          Allowing clients to think for themselves can be confusing for those who are not capable of doing so. Likewise, their clients may feel frustrated because they will not be provided with explanations for their problems.

                                          2. Opposition to Deterministic Laws of Science
                                          Humanistic approach supports free will in which proponents have opposing beliefs in deterministic laws. Accordingly, determinism states that there is only a single course of events that is possible, which contradicts that of the existence of free will.

                                          3. Ethnocentricity of Humanistic Approach
                                          This type of approach can be biased and centered on the Western culture only. For this matter, it can be said that it will influence those who have diverse cultures to follow and adopt even if it contradicts to their beliefs.

                                          4. Experience is Required
                                          In a classroom environment, for instance, the teacher’s capability is a very important role in the success of the humanistic approach. This is because in a humanist classroom, the teacher should facilitate students and their open expressions towards feelings in which traditional teaching doesn’t emphasize on it.

                                          5. Learning Style Issues
                                          Each student has unique learning styles that the humanist teacher must employ for that particular student. However, such styles and evaluations can be very unwieldy and unorganized.

                                          Humanistic approach can only be applied to few areas of psychology, but it can provide better insights into the behavior of the individual through qualitative methods. Likewise, it can offer a more comprehensive view on human behavior.